Archives for November 2010

IMPLICATIONS OF USING EXPECTANCY INSTRUMENTAL VALENCE THEORY AS A REWARD SYSTEM FOR MIDDLE AND LOWER LEVEL MANAGERS

INTRODUCTION Middle level managers are the tactical managers acting as a link between the strategic and functional managers. Their roles in business processes and decision making cannot be overlooked; hence they need to be adequately motivated. One of the theories that attempt to come up with better system of motivating middle-level managers is the Expectancy […]

USES OF CONTRIBUTION ANALYSIS IN DECISION MAKING PROCESSES

The use of contribution analysis cannot be fully understood if the meaning of the term is not first explained. Hence, I would like to start with the definition of contribution analysis, and how it is calculated. Contribution analysis is defined as: the payment made by individual products towards recovering the fixed cost of a business, […]

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